Protocols

Network protocol: Standards for data exchange

Network protocol: The basis of electronic data exchange

For computer systems to be able to communicate with each other and exchange information, they need common ground, just like humans must share a common language. But computers don’t rely on foreign language lessons, and instead only need the appropriate network protocol to successfully communicate. This provides guidelines and structures for the data transfer, and so plays a decisive role in the...

UDP - User Datagram Protocol

UDP: What is the User Datagram Protocol?

The Internet protocol family – the cornerstone for communication on the Internet – has around 500 members who work on a wide variety of layers. For example, the connectionless User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is responsible on the transport layer for the transmission of packets that were previously addressed via the Internet Protocol (IP). In this guide, you can find out exactly what distinguishes...

What is ICMP protocol and how does it work?

What is the ICMP?

In the background, numerous protocols ensure that communication and data transmission work in computer networks. As the most prominent representative, the Internet Protocol plays a fundamental role. Without its’ various extensions and additions they would be nowhere near as versatile, as is the case in the current protocol. Thanks to the possibilities offered by ICMP protocol error messages and...

DHCP Snooping

DHCP Snooping: More Security for Your Network

DHCP snooping makes a network more secure. There are no two ways about it: DHCP makes network configuration so much easier. This is especially the case in large networks, where devices are constantly changing and the manual assignment of IP addresses is a never-ending task. Yet by using DHCP to simplify the process, you do relinquish controls, and criminals can take advantage of this. By using...

IP Spoofing: Fundamentals and counter-measures

IP Spoofing: Simple manipulation of data packets by attackers

Sending data over networks is one of the most important and highest utilized functions of the modern computer era. But the structure of the necessary TCP/IP connections makes it all too easy for criminals to intercept data packets along their way and either view or alter their contents. One of the most common methods of attack is IP spoofing, which allows DoS and DDoS attacks, among other things...

What is MAC spoofing?

What is MAC spoofing?

MAC spoofing is a method by which unique hardware addresses are masked using a Locally Administered Address (LAA) in the software. MAC spoofing can offer protection for your privacy when using public LAN or WLAN networks, but can also be used for illegal network activities. We explain to you here how MAC spoofing works and which settings in Windows must be accessed in order to change your MAC...

Headless CMS: What are the benefits?

Get more from your own content with headless CMS

If you want to juggle more than one channel with your content management system, you’ll quickly reach the limits. A classic CMS offers many simplifications, but at the same time is limited with its design options. For this reason, content creators sometimes rely on another solution: a headless CMS. This separates the frontend from the backend so that different websites and mobile apps can be...

Error 405 Method Not Allowed: Explanation and solutions

HTTP Error “405 Method Not Allowed”: How to solve the problem

HTTP is indispensable as a mediator between the browser and web server: Both communicate with each other using the transmission protocol on the application layer by sending various types of messages. With an HTTP request, for example, the browser can request a resource or return its own data to the server. If one of these HTTP methods doesn’t work, error 405 (Method Not Allowed) occurs. But what...

Introduction to TCP/IP

TCP/IP explained simply

Without TCP/IP protocols, you wouldn’t be able to read the words on this page. TCP and IP, the two foundational protocols of the suite, along with other related sets of rules, define how computers communicate over the Internet and other networks. In fact, the standards are so established that every device on the Internet follows these protocols to ensure the smooth transfer of data.

Introduction to TCP

TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) – The transmission protocol explained

Life without networks, especially the Internet, is unimaginable nowadays. Interconnected servers, PCs and mobile devices are virtually indispensable at home and at work. However, most of us know very little about the fundamentals of these networks. All the more reason to take a closer look at the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), the central control component for data transmission.


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