Network

Man-in-the-middle attack: an overview of attack patterns

Man-in-the-middle attack: attack patterns and countermeasures

A man-in-the-middle attack is a deceitful espionage attack which aims to listen, record, or manipulate sensitive data being sent between unsuspecting internet users. To do this, hackers rely on methods that enable them to position themselves, unnoticed, between two or more computers communicating with one another. We introduce you to some well-known attack patterns and countermeasures that can be...

CIDR: Classless Inter Domain Routing

CIDR: what is classless inter-domain routing?

The internet – just like other large networks – must be precisely subdivided. The network classes, used until the 1990s and not yet completely gone from the scene, were far too inflexible for the requirements of the digital world. CIDR can help: With classless inter-domain routing, it’s possible to create effective subnets and routes. We explain how this works.

Ethernet

What is Ethernet (IEEE 802.3)?

In the beginning, there was ARPANET and ALOHAnet. Then Ethernet followed as a groundbreaking innovation for local networks. Ethernet enabled collision-free interconnection of multiple devices via a common bus. For the first time, data packages could efficiently be exchanged between individual devices. Today, the technology is extensively used in the standard IEEE 802.3. With fiber optic cables,...

What does ‘502 bad gateway’ mean?: Explanation and solution

Error 502 Bad Gateway: Where’s the problem?

HTTP status codes emerge when something isn’t running properly on the internet. In this respect, the 502 Bad Gateway error is no exception. But this familiar error message can be particularly tricky: It’s not actually clear where the source of the problem lies. In the chain of gateways along which internet requests run, the error could occur at a number of different points. This article explains...

The OSI model: a reference for standards and protocols

What’s the OSI model?

Those working with network technology are bound to encounter the ISO-OSI model sooner or later. This system subdivides communication between computer systems into seven different layers. Each of these layers is assigned a certain task. With the help of this layer model, subareas of abstract processes are able to be descriptively explained.

Bootp protocol

BOOTP: All information on the DHCP forerunner

If you want to connect a computer, smartphone, etc. to a network (LAN or WiFi), you can either assign the IP address manually or get it automatically. The latter is possible thanks to the DHCP (dynamic host configuration protocol) communication protocol, which has established itself as the cross-platform standard solution for address management. The forerunner was the BOOTP bootstrap protocol that...

Network protocol: Standards for data exchange

Network protocol: The basis of electronic data exchange

For computer systems to be able to communicate with each other and exchange information, they need common ground, just like humans must share a common language. But computers don’t rely on foreign language lessons, and instead only need the appropriate network protocol to successfully communicate. This provides guidelines and structures for the data transfer, and so plays a decisive role in the...

What are the benefits of IPv6?

IPv6: All about the new internet standard

IPv6 is the newest version of the internet protocols, and should overcome the central issues of its predecessors. Included in these issues is the impending shortage of IPv4 addresses as well as the violation of the end-to-end principle by the strict separation of public and private IPs. This article gives an overview of the functions of IPv6 as well as the structure and distribution of address...

Successful content promotion

Content promotion: maximum reach for your content

A content marketing strategy doesn’t just appear, but is rather the result of an intense analysis of goals, strengths, and content. Implementing the strategy requires a lot of personnel as well as finances. You design the content, write blog posts, produce videos, and put together whitepaper and e-books. After all this, you still aren’t finished. Nothing will happen if you don’t start promoting...

Telnet – the system-wide remote protocol

Telnet

Remote access to remote computer systems has always been a part of well-organized networks. Administrators can manage individual users as well as work on the move since a remote connection enables access to company data. One of the first protocols developed specifically for this purpose was Telnet.

1