Security

Keylogger

Keyloggers: how do they work and how do you protect yourself from them?

Keyloggers are programs or devices that get access to your credentials by recording your keystrokes. Keyloggers hide in operating system software and leak data. Some keylogger hardware is even more sophisticated, since it can document your keyboard behavior or tap directly into the data stream. Learn how keyloggers work and which variants are available in our guide. We also give you tips on how to...

DoS and DDoS: attack patterns at a glance

DoS: attack patterns and countermeasures

´It is very important for a server service to always be available since this is directly related to an online company’s success. Many servers are susceptible to DoS and DDoS attacks, which cause overloads and trigger costly crashes . But which patterns do these attacks follow and which counter measures can be put into place in order to protect critical systems from being targeted?

Linking restrictions due to ECJ judgement

'Playboy' judgement restricts the freedom to link

There are boundaries when it comes to linking. These boundaries have now been officially confirmed by the European Court of Justice (ECJ) in its judgement on the September 8th, 2016. Website operators that place hyperlinks with commercial intent are obliged to check the legality of the online content that is being linked to. According to the ECJ, private internet users aren’t expected to check,...

Personal data

Everything you need to know about personal data

What do your e-mail address, eye color, preferred political party, and license plate have in common? They can all be regarded as personal data which companies and cybercriminals can use to draw direct or indirect conclusions about your physical, physiological, genetic, psychological, economic, cultural, or social identity. It goes without saying that this sensitive information must be protected...

Server Name Indication

Server Name Indication (SNI): What’s behind the standard?

What is server name identification, really? Encryption technologies play a big role when it comes to surfing on the net. Credit card data and other personal information must not fall into the hands of criminals. For now, TLS is one of the protocols used for this purpose. But it has a disadvantage: it only functions when each IP address only hosts one domain. If multiple virtual services are...

Browser fingerprints: tracking without cookies

Browser fingerprints: the basics and protection options

In recent years, so-called browser fingerprinting has established itself as a tracking method that doesn’t rely on the use of cookies. Web servers capture different characteristics from visitors’ browsers and determine their digital fingerprint based on them. They enable visitors to be recognized at a later date. While some information is automatically transmitted, it is mainly active elements...

Click fraud: how to out fraudulent clicks

How to protect yourself from click fraud

Every year, click fraud costs the advertising industry billions. An increasing amount of advertising operators have to deal with the fact that their ads often don’t reach their intended targets due to artificially generated clicks through the likes of link farms or bot nets that seek to deplete advertising budgets. We take a closer look at the topic of click fraud and show you some counter...

Online identity theft protection

Online identity theft protection

Many only know internet identity theft and similar crimes from movies or television. But stories of online fraudsters are not just mere phantasies of screenwriters; for many the experience is all too real. Online identity theft has become more and more of a problem over the past few years, and everyone is a potential victim. We have compiled some preventative steps than can help you stay out of...

Encryption methods: An overview

Encryption methods: An overview

E-mail, instant messaging, or voice-over IP: If you want to communicate over the internet, you should make sure that the data transfer process can be trusted. The same goes for the World Wide Web. With online banking and digital shopping, money transactions are increasingly being carried out online. Popular encryption methods like DES, AES, or RSA should guarantee the security of passwords, credit...

Referral spam: causes and countermeasures

Referral spam: attack patterns and countermeasures

Do you find that lots of the traffic that arrives on your site comes from suspicious sources? There’s no need to worry since website operators encounter inconsistencies in reports from analysis tools (such as Google Analytics, Piwik, or etracker). The reason: referral spam falsifies visitor statistics. Learn how hackers can manipulate referrer information and traffic data, as well as which...


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